What is the difference between hardness and toughness of a metal?

The ASM Metals Handbook defines hardness as “Resistance of metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation” (asmmaterials.info).  Therefore, when a compressive force is administered to a solid matter, we can measure how resistant it is to permanently changing shape. Why is this important? A fracture mechanics engineer may consider hard material as brittle and unreliable…

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Virginia Class Submarines

Designed by Electric Boat, the Virginia-class is being built jointly under a teaming arrangement between Electric Boat and Northrop Grumman Newport News in Virginia. In 1998, the U.S. Navy awarded a $4.2 billion contract for the construction of the first four ships of the class. Virginia is the first of these. Displacing approximately 7,800 tons…

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Machine Learning & Cyber Security to Drive Future of Transport

Cyber security, virtual reality and machine learning have been identified as key areas that will inform and evolve the ever-changing global transport landscape, with a series of ground-breaking research projects being delivered over the coming year by experts from the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL). The critical topics of cyber security, virtual reality and machine learning…

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Eight Factors That Influence Oil Prices

This is an excellent illustration by the CME Group that explains the many variables behind the price of crude oil and ultimately the price we pay for gasoline. Some of these factors are the increase in global demand as well as a fear of geopolitical conflicts that can create a great deal of uncertainty around the supply…

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Fe2O3 Never Sleeps

Fe2O3 Never Sleeps Normally when someone hears about corrosion, they think it is a bad thing.  This is true in the case when steel “rusts” or creates an iron oxide on its surface.  This exposes the metal and subjects it to further corrosive attack.  The oxide is created when the iron in the alloy reacts with oxygen…

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