Chemical Processing

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Nickel-based alloys are the industry choice for high-temperature environments in chemical plants.  Not only are they exposed to highly corrosive materials, but commonly at temperatures above 1000°F.  They offer high corrosion resistance, metallurgical stability, weldability, strength, and toughness.  Advances are constantly being made in the production of our nickel alloys.  Because of this, their use in manufacturing technologies is constantly expanding across a wider range of applications.

Your choice of corrosion resistant alloys is optimized when developing equipment and even deciding on maintenance programs in your specific environment.  Nickel alloys become an economical choice for the long term when long-term maintenance and risk are factored in.

Navy/Marine

NAVY / MARINE

The marine engineering industry has used different nickel-based alloys in both marine and submarine applications for many years. Ni-Cu alloys like Alloy K500 or Alloy 400, have been used in both seawater and brackish water flowing at moderate to high velocity and have yielded excellent results. Caution is to be had with these alloys when used in stagnant or low velocity seawater conditions because fouling and pitting may occur, though the corrosion rate of attack will slow down over time and will rarely exceed 50mils in depth. Other nickel-based alloys like Alloys C276, Alloy 625 are even more resistant because of the addition of Cr and Mo to the alloy, even in stagnant or low velocity conditions. Especially with regards to crevice corrosion resistance. These alloys are often used for critical components like bellows expansion joints, fasteners, exhaust systems and seals.

Pulp and Paper

PULP & PAPER

In the Pulp & Paper Industry, new pulping methods have resulted in high corrosion susceptibility. Extended modified continuous cooking and isothermal cooking combine low hydroxide concentrations and high temperatures.  Often plants experience damage in digesters from cleaning with hydrochloric acid.  Chlorine bleaching is being replaced by chlorine dioxide and chlorate bleaching, which also requires high levels of corrosion resistance in equipment used in this bleaching process. It has been estimated that in the U.S. alone, over $1 trillion is lost to corrosion costs per year. The use of high performance alloys has been used as proactive protection against corrosive substances in plants across the world

Petrochemical and Refining

PETROCHEMICAL & REFINING

Erosion-corrosion make petrochemical plants susceptible to major failures in piping, valve, and pump components.  The petrochemical industry is a major market for nickel alloys because of the caustic solutions, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and sulfuric acid that so many of the components come in contact with.  Nickel alloys are used because of their heat resistant properties and ability to overcome severe corrosion problems.

Pollution Control

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

In the Air Pollution Control Industry it is critical to use alloys that can withstand high chloride levels.  Other environmental factors that contribute to the corrosion of components used in the industry are high temperatures, mineral deposits, halides other than chlorides, and acidity. Coal-fired power plants use flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust gases.  FGDs are the most vulnerable area to corrosion and are critical to compliance with the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments.

Oil and Gas

OIL & GAS

As oil and gas production expands with the growth of ultra-deepwater production, corrosion conditions have become even more harsh on equipment in this industry.  Nickel alloys are widely used in the oil and gas market. They offer long term corrosion resistance to high H2S and CO2, high pressures, and high temperatures.   They are also the most resistant to corrosion and cracking caused by free sulfur.

The selection of corrosion resistant materials used in producing and transporting oil and gas is critical.  The specific environment of each production within the industry should be taken into account to pick the proper corrosion resistant alloys for your needs

PHARMACEUTICAL

In the pharmaceutical industry, it’s imperative for piping systems to be hygienic and easy to clean and disinfect.  On a chemical level, there is weight put on the materials used in production being not only non-corrosive, but also not reactive or absorptive.  The corrosion resistance of the welds is as important as the pipes.  The surface smoothness along the entire line means less likelihood of bacteria becoming established in surface defects.  Nickel alloys provide security against the product becoming contaminated during the entire process.

Food & Beverage

FOOD & BEVERAGE

Many industries come with the expectation of encountering highly corrosive materials.  But corrosion is the sneak attack in the food and beverage industry.  A surprising amount of food products are corrosive to many materials used to prepare and package them.  Particularly important are highly acidic and highly salted foods.  The chemicals used to clean food surfaces are also highly corrosive.  Since any amount of corrosion could contaminate food and provide a perfect environment for bacteria growth, the use of corrosion resistant materials is imperative in the food and beverage industry.

Power Generation

POWER GENERATION

There are many factors that can contribute to corrosion in power plants.  It’s important to consider vibration potential, highest temperatures, oxygen content, and potential for erosion and corrosion when considering tube and pipe materials.  Research into nickel alloys’ high performance in standing up to the presence of contaminants in the water-steam system has shown them to be the preferred material in tubing for generators. Nickel alloys are chosen for the power generation industry because of their consistent corrosion resistance at high temperatures.

Water Treatment

WATER TREATMENT

Water comes into a treatment plant from any number of sources. Rivers, lakes and reservoirs may have high chloride levels, mineral, and metal contents. Water from wells, underground springs, and water tables are often de-aerated with hydrogen sulphides. In boiler tubing, brittle fractures can result from fine cracks caused by hydrogen damage. Over 24.5 million cubic meters of seawater is desalinated per day globally.  The main corrosion control methodology for desalination is material selection.

The most important factor to consider for corrosion resistance is the chloride content of the water.  Under the scrutiny of many tests and academic studies, nickel based alloys showed insignificant corrosion rates in freshwater and seawater environments.